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Timeline : The Beatles

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January 3, 1926

Beatles producer George Martin is born in London. He signs the group to EMI in 1962 and his expertise as an arranger helps shape the band's unique sound. Upon Martin's death in 2016, Paul McCartney states: "If anyone earned the title of the fifth Beatle it was George."

November 12, 1931

Abbey Road Studios opens for business at 3 Abbey Road, St. John's Wood, London. The Beatles do most of their recording there and name their 1969 album Abbey Road, with a famous photo of the band traversing the crosswalk outside the studio.

September 19, 1934

Brian Epstein (Beatles manager) is born in Liverpool, Lancashire, England.

June 23, 1940

The Beatles' original bass player Stu Sutcliffe is born in Edinburgh, Scotland. He leaves the group before they hit it big so he can pursue painting.

July 7, 1940

Beatles drummer Ringo Starr is born Richard Starkey in Dingle, Liverpool, England.

October 9, 1940

John Winston Lennon is born in Liverpool, England. The "Winston" comes from British Prime Minister Winston Churchill - John would later add "Ono" to his middle name in honor of Yoko.

November 24, 1941

Original The Beatles drummer Pete Best is born in Delhi, India.

June 18, 1942

Paul McCartney is born James Paul McCartney in Allerton, Liverpool, England.

February 25, 1943

George Harrison is born in Liverpool, England. He becomes lead guitarist of The Beatles, a successful solo artist, and a member of The Traveling Wilburys.

January 16, 1957

The Cavern Club, where The Beatles cut their teeth, opens in Liverpool, England.

August 7, 1957

The Quarrymen (minus new member Paul McCartney, away at Scout camp) make their debut at Liverpool's Cavern Club. Manager Alan Sytner instructs them not to play Rock and Roll, but midway through their skiffle performance, John lights into a version of Elvis' "Don't Be Cruel," which the crowd loves. The group, of course, becomes The Beatles.

July 15, 1958

John Lennon's mother, Julia, is killed when she's hit by a car driven by an off-duty police officer. Lennon, 17 at the time, later writes the songs "Julia" and "Mother" about her.

August 17, 1960

The Beatles start their run at the Indra Club in Hamburg, Germany, honing their skills with four-hour sets where they play lots of R&B covers along with their original songs.

October 15, 1960

The famous lineup of The Beatles records together for the first time when Ringo Starr replaces an ailing Pete Best as the group backs up Rory Storm and the Hurricanes guitarist Wally Eymond on a recording of George Gershwin's "Summertime."

November 21, 1960

George Harrison of The Beatles is deported back to England when authorities in Germany, where the band has been performing, learn he is just 17.

December 27, 1960

Returning from Hamburg, Germany, The Beatles play a show in their hometown of Liverpool, England, with Chas Newby filling in for Stu Sutcliffe, who stays in Germany and never rejoins the band. The show gets a lot of attention, and is an early taste of Beatlemania.

February 9, 1961

The Beatles, with a lineup of Paul McCartney, John Lennon, George Harrison, bass player Stuart Sutcliffe and drummer Pete Best, play the Cavern Club in Liverpool for the first time, earning £5 for the lunchtime gig. They become regulars at the club, where they end up doing 291 more shows.

April 1, 1961

The Beatles begin a grueling gig at Hamburg's Top Ten Club - seven hours a day on weekdays (eight hours on weekends) for three months.

July 20, 1961

The Beatles, known as The Beat Brothers, get some press in the British paper Mersey Beat, which announces their first record deal.

October 19, 1961

The Beatles join forces with Gerry and the Pacemakers for a show in Liverpool, where both bands combine to perform as "The Beatmakers."

November 9, 1961

Liverpool record store owner Brian Epstein visits the local Cavern Club to check out the lunchtime show by a band he's heard a lot about: The Beatles. He becomes their manager, and in June 1962, lands them a deal with Parlophone Records.

January 24, 1962

The Beatles sign their first and only management contract with Brian Epstein at the manager's offices at 12 Whitechapel St. in Liverpool. Epstein is to receive a full one-quarter of the band's earnings, yet to prove his worth, he does not sign the contract until the following October.

January 1, 1962

The Beatles and The Tremeloes both audition for Decca Records, with The Beatles performing 15 songs at the label's studio in London. Decca signs The Tremeloes but passes on The Beatles, reasoning that "guitar groups are on the way out."

March 7, 1962

The Beatles record their first radio show, performing three cover songs for the BBC show Teenager's Turn - Here We Go in front of a live audience at the Playhouse Theatre in Manchester, England. It's their first appearance wearing suits.

April 13, 1962

The Beatles begin their legendary stint at the new Star-Club in Hamburg, Germany. Performing three to four hours a night for 48 days (with only one day off), the group logs a total of 172 hours of performance. When they return to England, they're already stars with a recording contract.

April 10, 1962

Stu Sutcliffe, original bass guitarist for The Beatles, dies at age 21 of a brain aneurysm.

June 6, 1962

The Beatles record at Abbey Road for the first time, demoing three songs they wrote themselves: "Love Me Do," "Ask Me Why" and "P.S. I Love You."

August 23, 1962

John Lennon marries Cynthia Powell at the Registrar office in Liverpool with Paul McCartney as best man. His wedding night is spent playing a gig with The Beatles at the nearby Riverpark Ballroom.

August 18, 1962

The Beatles perform at the 17th annual fete for the Birkenhead, England, Horticultural Society at the local Hulme Hall, a gig notable as the first time Ringo Starr will play onstage with the band. Ringo had prepared for two hours with the group beforehand.

August 16, 1962

Pete Best is fired as drummer for The Beatles, replaced by Ringo Starr. The group's manager Brian Epstein does the firing by calling Best into his record shop and giving him the bad news.

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